Mesothelioma cancer | mesothelioma symptoms | mesothelioma causes
Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from a thin layer of tissue covering many internal organs (known as the mesothelium). The most common area affected is the lining of the lungs and chest wall. Usually the lining of the abdomen and rarely the sac around the heart, or the sac around the testis may be affected. Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma may include shortness of breath due to fluid around the lungs, abdominal bloating, chest pain, cough, feeling tired, and weight loss.These symptoms usually come slowly.
More than 80% of mesothelioma cases are due to exposure to asbestos. The greater the risk, the greater the risk. As of 2013, around 125 million people worldwide have been exposed to asbestos at work. High rates of disease occur in people who mine asbestos, make products from asbestos, work with asbestos products, live with asbestos workers, or work in buildings with asbestos. Asbestos exposure and the onset of cancer typically break away by about 40 years. Washing the clothes of someone working with asbestos also increases the risk. Other risk factors include genetics and infection with simian virus 40. Diagnosis can be suspected based on chest X-ray and CT scan findings, and this is confirmed either by examining the fluid generated by the cancer or by a tissue tissue biopsy of the cancer.
Prevention centers around reducing asbestos exposure. Treatment often includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. A process known as pleurodesis, in which talc-like substances are used to stain the plura together, can be used to prevent the formation of more fluid around the lungs. Chemotherapy often includes medications cisplatin and pemetrexed. The percentage of people who live for five years after diagnosis is on average 8% in the United States.
In 2015, about 60,800 people had mesothelioma, and 32,000 died from the disease. Mesothelioma rates vary in different regions of the world. Australia, United Kingdom and Japan have higher rates at lower rates. It occurs in about 3,000 people per year in the United States. It is more frequent in males than females. The rate of illness has increased since 1950. Diagnosis usually occurs after the age of 65 and most deaths occur around 70 years. The disease was rare before commercial use of asbestos.
Signs and symptoms
LungsSigns or symptoms of mesothelioma may not appear until 20 to 50 years (or more) of exposure to asbestos. Shortness of breath, cough and chest pain due to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (pleural effusion) are often symptoms of pleural mesothelioma.Mesothelioma that affects the pleura can cause these signs and symptoms:Chest wall painPleural effusion, or fluid surrounding the lungsShortness of breath – which can be caused by a collapsed lungFatigue or anemiaWheezing, hoarseness, or coughCoughing up blood (fluid) in mucus (hemoptysis)In severe cases, the person may have multiple tumor masses. The person may develop a pneumothorax or collapse of the lung. The disease can metastasize or spread to other parts of the body.
StomachThe most common symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma are abdominal swelling and pain due to ascites (a buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity). Other features may include weight loss, fever, night sweats, poor appetite, vomiting, constipation and umbilical hernia. If the cancer has spread beyond the mesothelium to other parts of the body, symptoms may include pain, trouble swallowing, or swelling of the neck or face. [Citation needed] These symptoms may be due to mesothelioma or other, less serious conditions.Tumors that affect the abdominal cavity often do not cause symptoms until they are at a late stage. Symptoms include: stomach acheAscites, or abnormal buildup of fluid in the stomachA mass in the abdomenProblems with bowel functionWeight loss
HeartPericardial mesothelioma is not well characterized, but the cases seen include cardiac symptoms, particularly constrictive pericarditis, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and cardiac tamponade. They have also included alternative symptoms, including chest pain, orthopenia (shortness of breath, and flatulence). These symptoms are caused by tumors that infect or infect the heart.
Last stageIn severe cases of the disease, the following signs and symptoms may be present: Blood clots in the veins, which may cause thrombophlebitisThe cause of severe bleeding in many organs is a disorder that is intravascular coagulation.Jaundice, or yellowing of the eyes and skinlow blood sugarpleural effusionPulmonary embolism, or blood clots in the arteries of the lungsSevere ascitesIf mesothelioma creates metastases, they most commonly involve the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, or other lungs.
CausesDealing with asbestos is the most common risk factor for mesothelioma. However, mesothelioma has been reported in some individuals without any exposure to asbestos. Concerning evidence about carbon-fiber nanotubes also creates concern.
AsbestosThe occurrence of mesothelioma has been found to be higher in populations living near naturally occurring asbestos. People may be naturally exposed to asbestos in areas where mining or road construction is taking place, or when asbestos-containing rock is naturally experienced. Another common route of exposure is through asbestos-containing soil, which is used in Greece for whiteness, plaster, and roofing houses. In central Cappadocia, Turkey, mesothelioma was causing 50% of deaths in three small villages – Tuzkoi, Karen, and Sarhader. Initially, it was attributed to areonite. Environmental exposure to asbestos has led to mesothelioma in places other than Turkey, including Corsica, Greece, Cyprus, China and California. In the northern Greek mountain town of Metasvo, this demonstration resulted in an incidence of about 300 times as many mesothelioma in the asbestos-free population, and was often associated with pleural calcification known as the Metsovo lung.The documented presence of asbestos fibers in water supplies and food products has given rise to concerns about the long-term potential impact and, as yet, unknown risk to the general population for these fibers.Exposure to talc is also a risk factor for mesothelioma; The risk may affect those who live near talc mines, work in talc mines, or work in talc mills.In the United States, asbestos is considered the leading cause of malignant mesothelioma and is “indisputably” associated with the development of mesothelioma. In fact, the relationship between asbestos and mesothelioma is so strong that many consider mesothelioma a “signal” or “watchdog” tumor. In most cases there is a history of asbestos exposure.Pericardial mesothelioma may not be associated with asbestos exposure.Asbestos was known in ancient times, but was not mined and was widely used for commercial use until the late 19th century. Its use increased greatly during World War II. Since the early 1940s, millions of American workers have been exposed to asbestos dust. Initially, the risks associated with asbestos exposure were not publicly known. However, there is an increased risk of developing mesothelioma later on among Navy personnel (eg, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard), shipyard workers, people working in asbestos mines and mills, producers of asbestos products, workers in heating and construction found. Industries, and other traditions. Today, the official position of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the US EPA is that the safety and “permissible exposure limits” required by US regulations, while not enough to prevent most asbestos-related non-fatal illnesses. Preventing or preventing asbestos-related cancers such as mesothelioma. Similarly, the British Government’s Health and Safety Executive (HSE) formally states that any limit for exposure to asbestos should be at a very low level and it is widely agreed that if any such limit If present in all, its quantity cannot be determined at present. For practical purposes, therefore, the HSE assumes that no such “safe” limit exists. Others have also noted that there is no evidence of a threshold level below which there is no risk of mesothelioma. There appears to be a linear, dose-response relationship with increased dose to increased risk of disease. Nevertheless, mesothelioma may be related to brief, low levels or indirect risk of asbestos. The dose required for the effect appears to be lower for asbestos-induced mesothelioma than for pulmonary asbestosis or lung cancer. Again, there is no known safe level of exposure to asbestos as it is related to an increased risk of mesothelioma.The time of exposure before the onset of the disease is between 25 and 70 years. It is virtually no less than fifteen years old and peaks in 30–40 years. Asbestos may reduce the duration of exposure to mesothelioma. For example, cases of mesothelioma have been reported with only 3–3 months of exposure.
Exposure to asbestos fibers has been recognized as an occupational health hazard since the early 20th century. Several epidemiological studies have commercial associations of asbestos with the development of pleural plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, asbestosis, carcinoma of the lung and larynx, gastrointestinal tumors, and malignant mesothelin of the pleura and peritoneum. Asbestos has been widely used in many industrial products, including cement, brake linings, gaskets, roof shingles, flooring products.
TreatmentMesothelioma is usually resistant to radiation and chemotherapy treatment. Long-term survival and treatment are rare. There is a better prognosis in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma in earlier stages. The clinical behavior of malformation is influenced by many factors, including the continuous mesothelial surface of the pleural cavity, which favors local metastasis through exfoliated cells, invasion of the underlying tissue and other organs within the pleural cavity, and asbestos exposure and development. Extremely long latency period between. Of disease. Histological subtypes and age and health status of the patient also help in predicting prognosis. Epithelioid histology responds better to treatment and has a survival advantage over sarcomatoid histology.The effectiveness of radiotherapy compared to chemotherapy or surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma is not known.
SurgeryThe surgery itself has proved disappointing. In a large series, the median survival with surgery (including extrafloral pneumonectomy) was only 11.7 months. However, research indicates various successes when used in combination with radiation and chemotherapy (Duke, 2008), or one of the latter. A pulmonary / malformation is the most common surgery, in which the lining of the chest is removed. Less common is an additional pneumonectomy (EPP), in which the lungs, lining of the chest, hemi-diaphragm, and pericardium are removed. [Citation needed] In locally myicardial mesothelioma, pericardectomy may be curative. When tumor metastasis has occurred, pericardectomy is a palliative care option. The entire tumor often cannot be removed.
RadiationFor patients with localized disease, and who can tolerate a radical surgery, radiation may be given post-operatively as a coordinated treatment. The entire hemithorax is treated with radiation therapy, often given simultaneously with chemotherapy. Giving radiation and chemotherapy after radical surgery has increased life expectancy in selected patient populations. It can induce serious side effects including fatal pneumonitis. As part of a therapeutic approach for mesothelioma, radiotherapy is usually applied at sites of insertion of the chest groove to prevent tumor growth along the track in the chest wall. [Citation needed]Although mesothelioma is usually resistant to curative treatment with radiotherapy alone, palliative treatment regimens are sometimes used to relieve symptoms resulting from the development of tumors such as blockage of a major blood vessel. Radiation therapy, when given alone with inquisitive intent, has never been shown to improve survival from mesothelioma. The radiation dose required for the treatment of mesothelioma that has not been surgically removed would be beyond human tolerance. [Citation needed] Radiotherapy is of some use in pericardial mesothelioma.
ChemotherapyChemotherapy is the only treatment for mesothelioma that has been proven to improve survival in randomized and controlled trials. A landmark study published in 2003 by Vogelzang and colleagues compared a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) chemotherapy with cisplatin chemotherapy alone in patients who had not previously received chemotherapy for malignant paresthesal mesothelioma. Were not candidates for aggressive “curative” surgery. . This trial was the first to report a survival benefit from chemotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma, showing a statistically significant improvement in median survival from 10 months in patients treated with cisplatin, at 13.3 months in patients with cisplatin. In the K group were treated in conjunction. pemetrexed and which also received supplementation with folate and vitamin B12. Most patients in the trial were given vitamin supplementation and patients receiving pemetrexed had significantly fewer side effects related to pemetrexed when they received oral folate 500mcg and intramuscular vitamin B12 1000mcg every 9 weeks compared to patients receiving pemetrexed without vitamin supplementation. meet. The objective response rate increased from 20% to 46% in the cisplatin group in the combination pemetrexed group. Some side effects like nausea and vomiting, stomatitis, and diarrhea were more common in the combination pemetrexed group, but affected only a minority of patients and overall the combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin was well tolerated when patients received vitamin supplementation; Both quality of life and lung function tests improved the combination pemetrexed group. In February 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved pemetrexed for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. However, there are still unanswered questions about the optimal use of chemotherapy, when to start treatment, and the optimal number of cycles to deliver. [Citation needed] Cisplatin and Pemetrex are given to patients simultaneously.